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Inaugurated in June 2022, St. George
Audiology and Speech Therapy Clinic is a well equipped, new age ASLP clinic delivering high-quality, personalized speech and language therapy sessions to people in and around Kozhencherry. We have a well-equipped speech therapy room dedicated for kids.

 If you’re a first-time client, please get in touch to schedule your initial consultation 

speech sounds

 Language and Speech Development From Birth to 8 years old 

  • Pre-linguistic Stage: 0 to 12 Months

The first stage of development in the process of children learning to use language is the pre-linguistic stage. Babies use this stage to learn how to communicate with others.

During the first stage of life, babies rapidly learn how to communicate with their carers, so that by the age of 12 months, most babies understand what is being said to them and are starting to communicate their needs by pointing or by showing their carer objects.

  • Linguistic Stage: 15 Months to 8 Years

Children starts to use words around twelve months and by fifteen months they have developed their own word for an object or person and use it consistently. They then go on to use holophrases– using a single word to express several meanings by changing the sound and using gestures. As they grow children gradually put two words together to form a mini-sentence.

0-3 Months

  • Recognises different tones of voices

  • Coos and gurgles when content

  • Cries to show hunger, tiredness and distress

  • Smiles in response to others’ faces

  • Recognises carer’s voice.


6 Months

  • Babbles and coos

  • Babbles consist of short sounds e.g. ‘da da, ma ma’

  • Laughs, chuckles and squeals

  • Cries to show distress

  • Begin to understand emotion in parent or carer’s voice

  • Begin to enjoy music and rhymes accompanied by actions.


9 Months

  • Babbling continues

  • Begin to recognise own name

  • Imitate simple words

  • Pointing begins. This is often accompanied by a sound or the beginnings of a word. This demonstrates an increasing awareness that words are associated with people and objects

  • Babbling begins to reflect the intonation of speech

  • May understand simple, single words e.g. bye bye.



12 Months

  • Babbling becomes more tuneful and inventive

  • Strings vowels and consonants together to make repetitive sounds

  • Use gestures to ask for things

  • Enjoy games e.g peek-a-boo

  • Understand more than they can say

  • Begin to respond to simple instructions e.g ‘come here’, ‘clap your hands’.


15 Months

  • Have about ten words that their carers can understand

  • Words are used to mean more than one thing depending on the intonation the baby uses

  • Pointing is accompanied by a single word.



18 Months

  • Two words are put together e.g. ‘bye bye dog’

  • Telegraphic speech appears, with children using key words in a grammatical way e.g. ‘dada come’

  • Vocabulary increases with children learning 10-30 words in a month

  • Repeat words and sentences

  • Use language to name belongings and point out named objects.



2 Years

  • Quickly learns new words

  • Use plurals e.g. ‘dogs’

  • Makes errors e.g. ‘drawed’, ‘sheeps’

  • Starts to use negatives e.g. ‘there no cats’

  • Both active and passive vocabularies continue to increase

  • Sentences become longer although they tend to be in telegraphic speech

  • Questions are asked frequently, What? And Why?



3 Years

  • Speech is understood by strangers

  • Sentences contain four or more words

  • Imitates adult speech patterns accurately

  • Knows and understands nursery rhymes

  • Enjoys asking questions

  • Talk to themselves during play

  • Pronouns are usually used correctly

  • Rhymes and melody are attractive.


4 Years

  • Vocabulary is now extensive

  • Longer and more complex sentences are used

  • Are able to narrate long stories including sequence of events

  • Play involves running commentaries

  • Can use language to share, take turns, argue, collaborate etc.

  • Begin to describe how other people feel

  • Questioning is at its peak

  • Speech is fully intelligible with few, minor incorrect uses.



5 Years

  • Sentences are usually correctly structured although incorrect grammar may still be used

  • Pronunciation may still be childish

  • Have a wide vocabulary and can use it appropriately

  • Vocabulary can include shapes, colours, numbers etc.

  • Questions become more precise

  • Offer opinions in discussion.

6 Years

  • Understands 13,000 words

  • Understands opposites

  • Classifies according to form, colour and use

  • Uses all pronouns correctly.



7 Years

  • Understand 20,000-26,000 words

  • Understands time intervals and seasons of the year

  • Is aware of mistakes in other peoples’ speech.



8 Years

  • Form complex and compound sentences much more easily and exhibit few lapses in grammar

  • Carry on meaningful conversations with adult speakers and follow fairly complex instructions with little or no repetition

  • Able to read age appropriate texts with ease and begin to demonstrate competence with writing simple compositions

  • Have acquired various social amenities in common usage, such as ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ and will know when and where to use them.

 What are speech disorders? 

A speech disorder refers to a problem with making sounds. Speech disorders include:

  • Articulation disorders: These are problems with making sounds in syllables, or saying words incorrectly to the point that listeners can't understand what's being said.

  • Fluency disorders: These include problems such as stuttering, in which the flow of speech is interrupted by unusual stops, partial-word repetitions ("b-b-boy"), or prolonging sounds and syllables (sssssnake).

  • Resonance or voice disorders: These are problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that distract listeners from what's being said. These types of disorders may also cause pain or discomfort for a child when speaking.

 What are language disorders? 

A language disorder refers to a problem understanding or putting words together to communicate ideas. Language disorders can be either receptive or expressive:

  • Receptive disorders are problems with understanding or processing language.

  • Expressive disorders are problems with putting words together, having a limited vocabulary, or being unable to use language in a socially appropriate way.

  • Cognitive-communication disorders are problems with communication skills that involve memory, attention, perception, organization, regulation, and problem solving.

 What are feeding disorders? 

Dysphagia/oral feeding disorders are disorders in the way someone eats or drinks. They include problems with chewing and swallowing, coughing, gagging, and refusing foods.

 What disorders can a speech-language pathologist treat? 

  • Apraxia

  • Autism

  • Articulation Disorders

  • Cleft Palate

  • Developmental Delays

  • Dyslexia (Orton Gillingham Therapy)

  • Early Language Delays

  • Executive Functioning (Attention, Organization)

  • Expressive and Receptive Language Disorders

  • Feeding Disorders

  • Fluency Disorders

  • Reading/Writing Difficulties

  • Selective Mutism

  • Swallowing Disorders

  • Tongue Thrust

  • Voice Disorders

  • Vocal Nodules

 What do speech-language pathologists Do? 

In speech-language therapy, an SLP works with a child one-on-one, in a small group, or in a classroom to overcome problems.

Therapists use a variety of strategies, including:

  • Language intervention activities: The SLP will interact with a child by playing and talking, using pictures, books, objects, or ongoing events to stimulate language development. The therapist may model correct vocabulary and grammar, and use repetition exercises to build language skills.

  • Articulation therapy: Articulation, or sound production, exercises involve having the therapist model correct sounds and syllables in words and sentences for a child, often during play activities. The level of play is age-appropriate and related to the child's specific needs. The SLP will show the child how to make certain sounds, such as the "r" sound, and may show how to move the tongue to make specific sounds.

  • Oral-motor/feeding and swallowing therapy: The SLP may use a variety of oral exercises — including facial massage and various tongue, lip, and jaw exercises — to strengthen the muscles of the mouth for eating, drinking, and swallowing. The SLP may also introduce different food textures and temperatures to increase a child's oral awareness during eating and swallowing.

 5 Reasons an Adult Would Need a Speech Therapist 

Speech pathology therapists, commonly referred to as speech therapists, are medical specialists who work with patients who have any of a number of oral issues. These issues range from general communication to voice, language, and swallowing.

Speech therapists can help patients improve their ability to communicate and help them with tongue and throat disorders. A speech therapist can treat babies, children, and adults.

Five important reasons why an adult would need to see a speech therapist include the following:

1. Dysphasia and swallowing issues

Cancer and neurological issues can affect movements of the lips, jaw, tongue, throat, and larynx. This can affect swallowing, chewing, and speaking, so a speech therapist can help you regain those movements or help you learn workaround movements.

You will likely be asked to have a swallowing test, in which you are given food to swallow while the therapist watches how your mouth and throat areas are moving on a monitor. The monitor harnesses X-ray technology to capture the real-time images.

2. Stuttering

Stuttering is a speech disorder that causes a person to repeat words, stretch them out, or have a hard time pronouncing them. Feelings can influence stuttering, and the issue may be exacerbated by tension or excitement.

A speech therapist can help adults with stuttering problems by overcoming their situational fears and practicing methods to minimize stuttering. There may be certain sounds you have difficulty enunciating or finishing, and the therapist will show you how to get yourself through this issue when you’re speaking.

3. Acquired apraxia

Apraxia is an impairment of speech and language abilities that is caused by brain injury, which may be due to brain disease or brain damage from a stroke or trauma. Adults with apraxia may have difficulty pronouncing words correctly, have speech errors and inconsistencies, and constantly grope for the right words. Your therapist will show you how to regain your speaking abilities again.

4. Dysarthria

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder whereby the speech muscles have been weakened, paralyzed, or damaged. This causes slurred, imprecise, or difficult-to-understand speech.

An adult with dysarthria has no control over his or her tongue, vocal cords, and larynx, and has difficulty forming words. Your speech therapist will teach you how to communicate despite these issues.

5. Aphasia

Aphasia is a partial or total loss of the ability to produce and even process language, and this issue results from a brain injury. An adult with aphasia has difficulty reading, writing, speaking, and understanding language.

A person with aphasia may have trouble naming people, objects, and events, have difficulty putting words together, may mix up words, and may speak in short phrases or single words. A speech therapist can help to re-train your brain to improve your communication and comprehension skills.

Speech therapy for kids

For your child, speech therapy may take place in a classroom or small group, or one-on-one, depending on the speech disorder. Speech therapy exercises and activities vary depending on your child’s disorder, age, and needs. During speech therapy for children, the SLP may:

  • interact through talking and playing, and using books, pictures other objects as part of language intervention to help stimulate language development

  • model correct sounds and syllables for a child during age-appropriate play to teach the child how to make certain sounds

  • provide strategies and homework for the child and parent or caregiver on how to do speech therapy at home

Speech therapy for adults

Speech Therapy For Adults

Speech therapy for adults also begins with assessment to determine your needs and the best treatment. Speech therapy exercises for adults can help you with speech, language, and cognitive communication.

Therapy may also include retraining of swallowing function if an injury or medical condition, such as Parkinson’s disease or oral cancer has caused swallowing difficulties.

Exercises may involve:

  • problem solving, memory, and organization, and other activities geared at improving cognitive communication

  • conversational tactics to improve social communication

  • breathing exercises for resonance

  • exercises to strengthen oral muscles

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